Thursday, December 31, 2015

Best Wishes for New Year 2016

A good beginning makes a good end

yield Keyword Explained

When you use the yield keyword in a statement, you indicate that the method, operator, or get accessor in which it appears is an iterator. Using yield to define an iterator removes the need for an explicit extra class when you implement the IEnumerable and IEnumerator pattern for a custom collection type. The yield keyword was introduced in C# 2.0 (it is not currently available in VB.NET) and is useful for iteration. In iterator blocks it can be used to get the next value.
“Yield keyword helps us to do custom stateful iteration over .NET collections.” There are two scenarios where “yield” keyword is useful:
  • Customized iteration through a collection without creating a temporary collection
  • Stateful iteration
It is a contextual keyword used in iterator methods in C#. Basically, it has two use cases:
  • yield return obj; returns the next item in the sequence.
  • yield break; stops returning sequence elements (this happens automatically if control reaches the end of the iterator method body).
When you use the "yield return" keyphrase, .NET is wiring up a whole bunch of plumbing code for you, but for now you can pretend it's magic. When you start to loop in the calling code, this function actually gets called over and over again, but each time it resumes execution where it left off.
Typical Implementation
  1. Caller calls function
  2. Function executes and returns list
  3. Caller uses list
Yield Implementation
  1. Caller calls function
  2. Caller requests item
  3. Next item returned
  4. Goto step #2
Although the execution of the yield implementation is a little more complicated, what we end up with is an implementation that "pulls" items one at a time instead of having to build an entire list before returning to the client.
public class PowersOf2
    static void Main()
        // Display powers of 2 up to the exponent of 8:
        foreach (int i in Power(2, 8))
            Console.Write("{0} ", i);

    public static System.Collections.Generic.IEnumerable<int> Power(int number, int exponent)
        int result = 1;

        for (int i = 0; i < exponent; i++)
            result = result * number;
            yield return result;
    // Output: 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 256

Wednesday, December 30, 2015

RabbitMQ : Tackling the broker SPOF

Though RabbitMQ brokers are extremely stable, a crash is always possible. Losing an instance altogether due to a virtual instance glitch is a likely possibility that can't be ignored. Therefore, it is essential to tackle the broker single point of failure (SPOF) before something bad happens, to prevent losing data or annoying users.The RabbitMQ can easily be configured to run in an active/active deployment, where several brokers are engaged in a cluster to act as a single highly-available AMQP middleware. The active/active aspect is essential, because it means that no manual fail-over operation is needed if one broker goes down.
Mirroring queues
With clustering, the configuration gets synchronized across all RabbitMQ nodes. This means that clients can now connect to one node or the other and find the exchanges and queues they're expecting. However, there is one thing that is not carried over the cluster by default: the messages themselves. By default, queue data is local to a particular node. When a queue is mirrored, its instances across the network organize themselves around one master and several slaves. All interaction (message queuing and dequeuing) happens with the master; the slaves receive the updates via synchronization over the cluster. If you interact with a node that hosts a slave queue, the interaction would actually be forwarded across the cluster to the master and then synchronized back to the slave.
Activating queue mirroring is done via a policy that is applied to each queue concerned.
Federating brokers
If you think beyond the notion of a single centralized enterprise resource and instead think in terms of distributed components, the idea of creating a topology of RabbitMQ brokers will emerge. RabbitMQ offers the following two plugins that allow the connection of brokers:
• The shovel plugin, which connects queues in one broker to exchanges in another broker
• The federation plugin, which connects queues to queues or exchanges to exchanges across brokers 
Both plugins ensure a reliable delivery of messages across brokers; if messages can't be routed to the target broker, they'll remain safely accumulated. Neither require brokers to be clustered, which simplifies setup and management (RabbitMQ and Erlang versions can mismatch). The federation plugin needs to be installed on all RabbitMQ nodes that will engage in the topology.
Keep in mind...
  • RabbitMQ relies on Erlang's clustering feature, which allows several Erlang nodes to communicate with each other locally or over the network.
  • The Erlang cluster requires a so-called security cookie as a means of cross-node authentication. 
  • If RabbitMQ instances are firewalled from each other, its needed to open specific ports on top of the one used by AMQP (5672); otherwise, the cluster will not work.
  • Make sure the same version of Erlang is used by all the RabbitMQ nodes that engage in a cluster; otherwise, the join_cluster command will fail with an OTP version mismatch error.
  • Similarly, the same major/minor version of RabbitMQ should be used across nodes, but patch versions can differ; this means that versions 3.2.1 and 3.2.0 can be used in the same cluster, but not 3.2.1 and 3.1.0.
  • In a federation, only the node where messages converge needs to be manually configured; its upstream nodes get automatically configured for the topology. Conversely with shovels, each source node needs to be manually configured to send to a destination node, which itself is unaware of the fact that it's engaged in a particular topology.

Thursday, December 24, 2015


WS-Policy is a specification that allows web services to use XML to advertise their policies (on security, quality of service, etc.) and for web service consumers to specify their policy requirements. WS-Policy is a W3C recommendation as of September 2007. WS-Policy represents a set of specifications that describe the capabilities and constraints of the security (and other business) policies on intermediaries and end points (for example, required security tokens, supported encryption algorithms, and privacy rules) and how to associate policies with services and end points.
  • To integrate software systems with web services
  • Need a way to express web services characteristics
  • Without this standard, developers need docs
  • Provides a flexible and extensible grammar for expressing the capabilities, requirements, and general characteristics of Web Service entities
  • Defines a model to express these properties as policies
  • Provide the mechanisms needed to enable Web Services applications to specify policies
WS-Policy specifies:
  • An XML-based structure called a policy expression containing policy information
  • Grammar elements to indicate how the contained policy assertions apply
  • Policy: refers to the set of information being expressed as policy assertions
  • Policy Assertion: represents an individual preference, requirement, capability, etc.
  • Policy Expression: set of one or more policy assertions
  • Policy Subject: an entity to which a policy expression can be bound
Policy Namespaces:
  • WS-Policy schema defines all constructs that can used in a policy expression
Prefix Description Namespace
wsp WS-Policy, WS-PolicyAssertions, and WS_PolicyAttachment
wsse WS-SecurityPolicy
wsu WS utility schema
msp WSE 2.0 policy schema