Friday, April 7, 2017

JSON Schema

In computing, JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) is an open-standard format that uses human-readable text to transmit data objects consisting of attribute–value pairs. It is the most common data format used for asynchronous browser/server communication, largely replacing XML, and is used by AJAX.
JSON is a language-independent data format. It was derived from JavaScript, but as of 2017 many programming languages include code to generate and parse JSON-format data. The official Internet media type for JSON is application/json. JSON filenames use the extension .json.
JSON Schema specifies a JSON-based format to define the structure of JSON data for validation, documentation, and interaction control. A JSON Schema provides a contract for the JSON data required by a given application, and how that data can be modified. JSON Schema is based on the concepts from XML Schema (XSD), but is JSON-based. The JSON data schema can be used to validate JSON data. As in XSD, the same serialization/deserialization tools can be used both for the schema and data. The schema is self-describing. There are no standard file extension, but some suggested .schema.json.
The official MIME type for JSON text is "application/json". Although most modern implementations have adopted the official MIME type, many applications continue to provide legacy support for other MIME types. Many service providers, browsers, servers, web applications, libraries, frameworks, and APIs use, expect, or recognize the (unofficial) MIME type "text/json" or the content-type "text/javascript".
  "$schema": "",
  "title": "Product",
  "type": "object",
  "required": ["id", "name", "price"],
  "properties": {
    "id": {
      "type": "number",
      "description": "Product identifier"
    "name": {
      "type": "string",
      "description": "Name of the product"
    "price": {
      "type": "number",
      "minimum": 0
    "tags": {
      "type": "array",
      "items": {
        "type": "string"
    "stock": {
      "type": "object",
      "properties": {
        "warehouse": {
          "type": "number"
        "retail": {
          "type": "number"
There are several websites which allows us to generate JSON schema file online. An example is :

Tuesday, April 4, 2017

OpenAPI Specification : Swagger

The OpenAPI Specification (originally known as the Swagger Specification) is a specification for machine-readable interface files for describing, producing, consuming, and visualizing RESTful Web services. A variety of tools can generate code, documentation and test cases given an interface file. Development of the OpenAPI Specification (OAS) is overseen by the Open API Initiative, an open source collaborative project of the Linux Foundation.
Swagger is a project used to describe and document RESTful APIs. The Swagger specification defines a set of files required to describe such an API. These files can then be used by the Swagger-UI project to display the API and Swagger-Codegen to generate clients in various languages. Additional utilities can also take advantage of the resulting files, such as testing tools.
Applications implemented based on OpenAPI interface files can automatically generate documentation of methods, parameters and models. This helps keep the documentation, client libraries, and source code in sync.
  • The OpenAPI Specification is language-agnostic. It is also extensible into new technologies and protocols beyond HTTP.
  • With Swagger's declarative resource specification, clients can understand and consume services without knowledge of server implementation or access to the server code.
  • The Swagger UI framework allows both developers and non-developers to interact with the API in a sandbox UI that gives clear insight into how the API responds to parameters and options. Swagger may utilize both JSON and XML.
  • Swagger-Codegen contains a template-driven engine to generate documentation, API clients and server stubs in different languages by parsing the OpenAPI/Swagger definition.
How to start:
If you're an API provider and want to use Swagger to describe your APIs - there are several approaches available:
  • A top-down approach where you would use the Swagger Editor to create your Swagger definition and then use the integrated Swagger Codegen tools to generate server implementation.
  • A bottom-up approach where you have an existing REST API for which you want to create a Swagger definition. Either you create the definition manually (using the same Swagger Editor mentioned above), or if you are using one of the supported frameworks (JAX-RS, node.js, etc), you can get the Swagger definition generated automatically for you. If you're doing JAX-RS have a look at the example at
If on the other hand you're an API Consumer who wants to integrate with an API that has a Swagger definition you can use the online version of the Swagger UI to explore the API (given that you have a URL to the APIs Swagger definition) - and then use Swagger Codegen to generate the client library of your choice.

Monday, March 20, 2017

Amazon DynamoDB

Amazon DynamoDB is a fully managed NoSQL database service that provides fast and predictable performance with seamless scalability. DynamoDB lets you offload the administrative burdens of operating and scaling a distributed database, so that you don't have to worry about hardware provisioning, setup and configuration, replication, software patching, or cluster scaling.
With DynamoDB, you can create database tables that can store and retrieve any amount of data, and serve any level of request traffic.You can scale up or scale down your tables' throughput capacity without downtime or performance degradation, and use the AWS Management Console to monitor resource utilization and performance metrics.
DynamoDB automatically spreads the data and traffic for your tables over a sufficient number of servers to handle your throughput and storage requirements, while maintaining consistent and fast performance. All of your data is stored on solid state disks (SSDs) and automatically replicated across multiple Availability Zones in an AWS region, providing built-in high availability and data durability.
Tables, Items, and Attributes
In Amazon DynamoDB, a table is a collection of items and each item is a collection of attributes. Each attribute in an item is a name-value pair. An attribute can be a scalar (single-valued), a JSON document, or a set.
Primary Key
When you create a table, in addition to the table name, you must specify the primary key of the table. The primary key uniquely identifies each item in the table, so that no two items can have the same key.
DynamoDB supports two different kinds of primary keys:
  • Partition Key – A simple primary key, composed of one attribute known as the partition key. DynamoDB uses the partition key's value as input to an internal hash function; the output from the hash function determines the partition where the item will be stored. No two items in a table can have the same partition key value.
  • Partition Key and Sort Key – A composite primary key, composed of two attributes. The first attribute is the partition key, and the second attribute is the sort key. DynamoDB uses the partition key value as input to an internal hash function; the output from the hash function determines the partition where the item will be stored. All items with the same partition key are stored together, in sorted order by sort key value. It is possible for two items to have the same partition key value, but those two items must have different sort key values.
Secondary Indexes
DynamoDB supports two kinds of secondary indexes:
  • Global secondary index – an index with a partition key and sort key that can be different from those on the table.
  • Local secondary index – an index that has the same partition key as the table, but a different sort key.
DynamoDB Data Types
Amazon DynamoDB supports the following data types:
  • Scalar types – Number, String, Binary, Boolean, and Null.
  • Document types – List and Map.
  • Set types – String Set, Number Set, and Binary Set.

Saturday, March 18, 2017

ExtJS : JavaScript application framework

Ext JS is a pure JavaScript application framework for building interactive cross platform web applications using techniques such as Ajax, DHTML and DOM scripting. Ext JS helps you build data-intensive, cross-platform web apps for desktops, tablets, and smartphones. Originally built as an add-on library extension of Yahoo! User Interface Library (YUI). Ext JS includes interoperability with jQuery and Prototype. Beginning with version 1.1, Ext JS retains no dependencies on external libraries, instead making their use optional.
Sencha Ext JS provides everything a developer needs to build data-intensive, cross-platform web applications. Ext JS leverages HTML5 features on modern browsers while maintaining compatibility and functionality for legacy browsers.
Ext JS features hundreds of high-performance, pre-tested and integrated UI components including calendar, grids, charts and more. The Ext JS Grid and Advanced Charting package can handle millions of records with ease. The framework includes a robust data package that can consume data from any back-end data source. With Sencha Pivot Grid and D3 adapter, organizations can add leading-edge visualization and analytics capabilities to their web applications.
The rich set of Ext JS tools and themes help improve development productivity and accelerate the delivery of great looking web applications. Tools are available to help with application design, development, theming, and debugging as well as build optimization and deployment.
Ext JS includes a set of GUI-based form controls (or "widgets") for use within web applications:
  • text field and textarea input controls
  • date fields with a pop-up date-picker
  • numeric fields
  • list box and combo boxes
  • radio and checkbox controls
  • html editor control
  • grid contro
  • tree control
  • tab panels
  • toolbars
  • desktop application-style menus
  • region panels to allow a form to be divided into multiple sub-sections
  • sliders
  • vector graphics charts
Ext.NET is an ASP.NET component framework integrating the Ext library, current version (as of September 2015) is 3.2.1 which integrates ExtJS version 5.1.1
Ext JS version 6.0 of the Ext JS framework was released on March 29, 2016. It merges the Sencha Touch (mobile) framework into Ext JS.

Monday, February 27, 2017

AWS Step Functions

Step function is a new AWS service. AWS Step Functions makes it easy to coordinate the components of distributed applications and microservices using visual workflows. Building applications from individual components that each perform a discrete function lets you scale and change applications quickly. Step Functions is a reliable way to coordinate components and step through the functions of your application. Step Functions provides a graphical console to arrange and visualize the components of your application as a series of steps. This makes it simple to build and run multi-step applications. Step Functions automatically triggers and tracks each step, and retries when there are errors, so your application executes in order and as expected. Step Functions logs the state of each step, so when things do go wrong, you can diagnose and debug problems quickly. You can change and add steps without even writing code, so you can easily evolve your application and innovate faster.

AWS Step Functions manages the operations and underlying infrastructure for you to help ensure your application is available at any scale.

With regards to pricing you only pay for the transitions, that is the steps between tasks.

Friday, February 17, 2017

Custom Authorization HTTP Request in AWS NodeJS Lambda function

Below is the sample code for AWS NodeJS lambda function. This will show how to make an HTTP request with Custom Authorization using "request" node module.
request v2.79.0 - Simplified HTTP request client.
Request package is designed to be the simplest way possible to make http calls. It supports HTTPS and follows redirects by default.

/// Module to test HTTP POST Request
/// Created By: Sohan Fegade
/// Created Date: 17-Feb-2017

var request = require('request');
var buffer = require('buffer');

console.log('Loading http-test-module');

exports.handler = function (event, context, callback) {

    if (event != null) {
        console.log('event = ' + JSON.stringify(event));

        var username = 'sampleuser';
        var password = 'samplepassword';
        var auth = 'Basic ' + buffer.Buffer(username + ':' + password).toString('base64');
        var options = {
            url: '',
            headers: {
                'Content-Type': 'application/json',
                'Authorization': auth
            json: {
                'type': 'test',
                'input': 'test',
                'field': 'test',
                'scope': 'urn:scope-api',
                'token-type': 'auth-token'
        }, function (error, response, body) {
            if (!error && response.statusCode === 200) {
               console.log('Access Token : ' + body.access-token);
            context.callbackWaitsForEmptyEventLoop = false;
            callback(null, 'SUCCESS');
    else {
        console.log('No event object');

Tuesday, January 31, 2017

AWS Route 53

Amazon Route 53 (Route 53) is part of's cloud computing platform, Amazon Web Services (AWS). Route 53 provides a scalable and highly available Domain Name System (DNS). The name is a reference to TCP or UDP port 53, where DNS server requests are addressed. In addition to being able to route users to various AWS services, including EC2 instances, Route 53 also enables AWS customers to route users to non-AWS infrastructure. Route 53's servers are distributed throughout the world. Amazon Route 53 supports full, end-to-end DNS resolution over IPv6. Recursive DNS resolvers on IPv6 networks can use either IPv4 or IPv6 transport to send DNS queries to Amazon Route 53.
One of the key features of Route 53 is programmatic access to the service that allows customers to modify DNS records via web service calls. Combined with other features in AWS, this allows a developer to programmatically bring up a machine and point to components that have been created via other service calls such as those to create new S3 buckets or EC2 instances.
AWS supposedly named the service Route 53 because all DNS requests are handled through port 53, and the "route" piece resembles the historic "Route 66" of the USA. And Route is basically for routing any traffic to Amazon DNS.